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Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

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Triniteras
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Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

The Revolution and Social Change
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?fr...+ly0057%29
In their September 1969 revolution, Qadhafi and the young officers who provided most of his support aimed with idealistic fervor at bringing to an end the social inequities that had marked both the colonial periods and the monarchical regime. The new government that resulted was socialist, but Qadhafi stressed that it was to be a kind of socialism inspired by the humanitarian values inherent in Islam. It called for equitable distribution to reduce disparities between classes in a peaceful and affluent society, but in no sense was it to be a stage on the road to communism.

Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?fr...+ly0044%29
LIBYAN SOCIETY IN the late 1980s was in a state of transition from one set of structures and values to another. For nearly two decades the country's leader, Muammar al Qadhafi, had sought to transform Libya from an underdeveloped backwater into a modern socialist state compatible with the dictates of the Quran and the heritage of Islam. The regime's policies and goals often aroused controversy as the country moved away from the Libyan-Arab mold of the past in which heredity and patronage determined social distinction and toward the new egalitarian society that was the Qadhafi regime's ideal.

The changes the society was undergoing were made possible in large measure by petroleum wealth, which had converted the country from one of the world's poorest at the time of independence in 1951 to one of the most prosperous. By the 1980s, most Libyans enjoyed educational opportunities, health care, and housing that were among the best in Africa and the Middle East. Responsibility for the care of the old and the needy had been largely shifted from the extended family to a comprehensive system of social security. Education and medical care were free, and when necessary the state subsidized housing and other necessities. Life expectancy, perhaps the ultimate measure of living standards, had lengthened by ten years since 1960, and social mobility was much improved.

In 1984 the population reached 3.6 million and was growing at about 4 percent a year, one of the highest rates in the world. Unlike its neighbors, the Libyan government welcomed this rate of growth, which it hoped would eventually remedy the country's shortage of labor. The population was overwhelmingly concentrated along the Mediterranean coast, much of it around Benghazi and Tripoli. Villagers and rural tribesmembers continued to migrate to cities and towns, seeking better-paying jobs in industry or in the service sector of the modern economy. The number of jobs far exceeded the number of qualified Libyans; consequently, the population included at least 260,000 expatriate workers who were essential for the functioning of the economy.

Social Welfare

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?fr...+ly0067%29
Subsidized food, inexpensive housing, free medical care and education, and profit-sharing were among the benefits that eased the lives of all citizens. The government protected the employed in their jobs and subsidized the underemployed and unemployed. In addition, there were nurseries to care for the children of working mothers, orphanages for homeless children, and homes for the aged. The welfare programs had reached even the oasis towns of the desert, where they reportedly were received with considerable satisfaction. The giving of alms to the poor remained one of the pillars of the Islamic faith, but the extent of public welfare was such that there was increasingly less place for private welfare. Nonetheless, the traditional Arab sense of family responsibility remained strong, and provision for needy relatives was still a common practice.

Medical Care
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?fr...+ly0068%29
The number of physicians and surgeons in practice increased fivefold between 1965 and 1974, and large increases were registered in the number of dentists, medical, and paramedical personnel. Further expansion and improvement followed over the next decade in response to large budgetary outlays, as the revolutionary regime continued to use its oil income to improve the health and welfare of all Libyans. The number of doctors and dentists increased from 783 in 1970 to 5,450 in 1985, producing in the case of doctors a ratio of 1 per 673 citizens. These doctors were attached to a comprehensive network of health care facilities that dispensed free medical care. The number of hospital beds increased from 7,500 in 1970 to almost 20,000 by 1985, an improvement from 3.5 beds to 5.3 beds per 1,000 citizens. During the same years, substantial increases were also registered in the number of clinics and health care centers.

A large proportion of medical and paramedical personnel were foreigners brought in under contract from other Arab countries and from Eastern Europe. The major efforts to "Libyanize" health care professionals, however, were beginning to show results in the mid1980s . Libyan sources claimed that approximately 33 percent of all doctors were nationals in 1985, as compared with only about 6 percent a decade earlier. In the field of nursing staff and technicians, the situation was considerably better--about 80 percent were Libyan. Schools of nursing had been in existence since the early 1960s, and the faculties of medicine in the universities at Tripoli and Benghazi included specialized institutes for nurses and technicians. The first medical school was not established until 1970, and there was no school of dentistry until 1974. By 1978 a total of nearly 500 students was enrolled in medical studies at schools in Benghazi and Tripoli, and the dental school in Benghazi had graduated its first class of 23 students. In addition, some students were pursuing graduate medical studies abroad, but in the immediate future Libya was expected to continue to rely heavily on expatriate medical personnel.

The streets of Tripoli and Benghazi were kept scrupulously clean, and drinking water in these cities was of good quality. The government had made significant efforts to provide safe water. In summing up accomplishments since 1970, officials listed almost 1,500 wells drilled and more than 900 reservoirs in service in 1985, in addition to 9,000 kilometers of potable water networks and 44 desalination plants. Sewage disposal had also received considerable attention, twenty-eight treatment plants having been built.

Housing
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?fr...+ly0069%29
Both the public and private sectors were involved in housing construction during the 1970s. Private investment and contracting accounted for a large portion of all construction until new property ownership laws went into effect in 1978 that limited each family to only one dwelling. Despite the decline of privately financed undertakings, the housing sector constituted one of the most notable of the revolution's achievements. By the late 1970s, the hovels and tenements surrounding Benghazi and Tripoli had begun to give way to modern apartment blocks with electricity and running water that stretched ever farther into what had once been groves and fields. These high-rise apartments became characteristic of the skylines of contemporary Benghazi, Tripoli, and other urban areas.

EDUCATION
Total school enrollment rose from 34,000 on the eve of independence in 1951, to nearly 150,000 in 1962, to about 360,000 at the time of the 1969 revolution. During the 1970s, the training of teachers was pushed in an effort to replace the Egyptian and other expatriate personnel who made up the majority of the teaching corps. Prefabricated school buildings were erected, and mobile classrooms and classes held in tents became features of the desert oases.

In 1986 official sources placed total enrollments at more than 1,245,000 students, of whom 670,000 (54 percent) were males and 575,000 (46 percent) were females (see table 2, Appendix ). These figures meant that one-third of the population was enrolled in some form of educational endeavor. For the 1970-86 period, the government claimed nearly 32,000 primary, secondary, and vocational classrooms had been constructed, while the number of teachers rose from nearly 19,000 to 79,000 (see table 3, Appendix). The added space and increased number of new teachers greatly improved student-teacher ratios at preprimary and primary levels; rising enrollments in general secondary and technical education, however, increased the density of students per classroom at those levels.

At independence, the overall literacy rate among Libyans over the age of ten did not exceed 20 percent. By 1977, with expanding school opportunities, the rate had risen to 51 percent overall, or 73 percent for males and 31 percent for females. Relatively low though it was, the rate for females had soared from the scanty 6 percent registered as recently as 1964. In the early 1980s, only estimates of literacy were available--about 70 percent for men and perhaps 35 percent for women.

In 1987 education was free at all levels, and university students received substantial stipends. Attendance was compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years or until completion of the preparatory cycle of secondary school.

From its inception, the revolutionary regime placed great emphasis education, continuing and expanding programs begun under the monarchy. By the 1980s, the regime had made great strides, but much remained to be done. The country still suffered from a lack of qualified Libyan teachers, female attendance at the secondary level and above was low, and attempts in the late 1970s to close private schools and to integrate religious and secular instruction had led to confusion. Perhaps most important were lagging enrollments in vocational and technical training. As recently as 1977, fewer than 5,000 students were enrolled in 12 technical high schools. Although unofficial estimates placed technical enrollments at nearly 17,000 by 1981, most doctors, dentists, and pharmacists in the early 1980s still came from abroad. Young Libyans continued to shun technical training, preferring white collar employment because it was associated with social respect and high status. As a consequence, there seemed to be no immediate prospect for reducing the heavy reliance on expatriate workers to meet the economy's increasing need for technical skills.

06.07.2011 09:08
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Commissar
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Post: #2
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Based on this report, it appears Libya has made major developents during Gaddafi's rule. The education system made much improvements.The country has much oil reserves and a small population to redistribute the wealth among the society. It's a great welfare system.

Politically speaking, Gaddafi has ruled for 41 years without any challengers. Yet, he seems to have broad popular support among the Libyan people.

Why do you suppose that Libya is undergoing turmoil now?

Based on this report, why did the U.S. decide that it could successfully overthrow a popular nationalist?

Given the resistance by pro-Gaddafi forces, what should NATO members do now?


"...while we were God’s enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! Not only is this so, but we also boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation." (Romans 5:10-11)
06.07.2011 19:29
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GeneralMangi
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Post: #3
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Commissar Wrote:
Based on this report, it appears Libya has made major developents during Gaddafi's rule. The education system made much improvements.The country has much oil reserves and a small population to redistribute the wealth among the society. It's a great welfare system.

Politically speaking, Gaddafi has ruled for 41 years without any challengers. Yet, he seems to have broad popular support among the Libyan people.

Why do you suppose that Libya is undergoing turmoil now?

Based on this report, why did the U.S. decide that it could successfully overthrow a popular nationalist?

Given the resistance by pro-Gaddafi forces, what should NATO members do now?

Answers:
1. The turmoil in Libya is a consequence of the mass uprisings that occurred throughout the middle east and northern africa. The early uprisings throughout Egypt and Tunisia were legitimate in my opinion and the cause was just and sincere. However, the rolling effects of the Arab Spring brought out the opportunists who would take advantage of legitimate revolts. These opportunists, or the Libyan rebels in this situation, used the atmosphere of the region to coordinate, and I use that word lightly, a revolt against Gaddafi. We still do not know who the rebels are and what their real intentions are. We must remember that thousands of people marching in the streets is a powerful symbol, even though millions of others stay home and do not march and revolt. We sometimes forget to take into account the many people that do march.

2. First of all the U.S did not make this decision, Hilary Clinton pushed the subject with the President to go ALONG with the Europeans. The Europeans wanted to do this because of their interests in Libyan oil, the U.S gets barely any oil from Libya. Where Gaddafi went wrong was in the reaction to the unrest. He used force, immense force, and used even harsher words and threats about his plans "to cleanse Libya." These threats in turn brought back memories of genocides in Africa which were not stopped by the superpowers of the world. I suppose this is where Hilary's opinion came in, Bill Clinton, her husband, was the President during these African genocides. Clinton has since said that one of his biggest regrets was not taking action back then. By making this a 'humanitarian effort' the public was appeased enough to not go crazy about it. In the U.S liberals wont go against Obama, so they let him slide on the Libyan operation, although they would have crucified a Republican for it. In fact Obama never even received congressional approval, which he must do because of the war powers act, he just got a U.N resolution (it is a whole other subject going into the fact that Obama bypassed U.S approval for the U,N's). By the way George Bush received approval for both Afghanistan and Iraq, along with a U.N resolution. Even outside of this explanation, which is factually accurate, I feel deep down that this action in Libya is a de-sensitizing mission which will lead to something bigger. And finally they used Gaddafi instead of the Syrian Assad because Gaddafi has a track record of being evil, going back to the 80's.

3. Unfortunately Nato is very weak, without the U.S it is a complete joke. The Nato mission will end when the American funding ends. In my opinion Obama will not ditch his European allies because he likes to kiss the ass of foreign rulers. Also, Nato cant really leave until Gaddafi is dead or out of power, anything less than that is a complete and utter failure. They will eventually send in ground troops, because airstrikes dont solve everything.

It should be a very interesting situation no matter how it unfolds, we shall see.

06.07.2011 23:10
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Post: #4
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

This two pictures tells the entire story :
http://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/5608/elbe...be485_orig


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07.07.2011 00:12
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Commissar
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Post: #5
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Dear GeneralMangi

Ge

Quote:
neralMangi: The turmoil in Libya is a consequence of the mass uprisings that occurred throughout the middle east and northern africa. The early uprisings throughout Egypt and Tunisia were legitimate in my opinion and the cause was just and sincere.


What are the legitimate concerns of the people of Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen and Bahrain? Is there any anti-american sentiment?

Quote:
GeneralMangi ...the Libyan rebels in this situation, used the atmosphere of the region to coordinate, and I use that word lightly, a revolt against Gaddafi. We still do not know who the rebels are and what their real intentions are.


The U.S. invited the Libyan resistance to Washington DC. Although, the U.S. State Department does not recognize them. But then it begs the question of why U.S./NATO strikes are beyond the limits UNSC Resolution 1973? There have been hundreds of civilian casualties reported, including Gaddafi's 3 grandchildren. What is the purpose now?

Quote:
GeneralMangi: "First of all the U.S did not make this decision, Hilary Clinton pushed the subject with the President to go ALONG with the Europeans. The Europeans wanted to do this because of their interests in Libyan oil, the U.S gets barely any oil from Libya."


The U.S. recieves $2.5 billion oil through their Unocal's contracts with Libya. I agree that France is trying to lead the intervention, but the U.S. is clearly an interested party.

Quote:
GeneralMangi: Where Gaddafi went wrong was in the reaction to the unrest. He used force, immense force, and used even harsher words and threats about his plans "to cleanse Libya." These threats in turn brought back memories of genocides in Africa which were not stopped by the superpowers of the world.


Agreed. Gaddafi called his opposition "roaches". But it's unclear if the majority of the Libyan people want. I think NATOs involvement only emboldened the military resistance movement and derailed a peaceful movement. But, the U.S. was able to capture Gaddafi's meglomania on film to build public empathy for NATO strikes. But, again, what is the U.S. intentions at this point? It needs to be cleared.

Quote:
GeneralMangi: "In fact Obama never even received congressional approval, which he must do because of the war powers act, he just got a U.N resolution (it is a whole other subject going into the fact that Obama bypassed U.S approval for the U,N's). By the way George Bush received approval for both Afghanistan and Iraq, along with a U.N resolution."


It's true President Obama never recieved congressional approval. But no President has recieved congressional approval for war since World War 2. President Bush declared war on "terror", not a State. This left legal ambiguity to basically fight wherever he deemed necessary. Bush never recieved UNSC approval for Iraq, either. Sec. State Powell made a case for war, but France's Foreign Minister de Villepin made a strong case opposing the war and recieved an ovation. The U.S. was publicly humiliated and did not take the vote because they anticipated they would not recieve UNSC approval.

I wouln't make foreign policy a domestic partisan issue. The criticism is purely rhetorical. No State will ever want to look divided to the enemy. In the end, both Republicans and Democrats approve the war.

Quote:
GeneralMangi: "Also, Nato cant really leave until Gaddafi is dead or out of power, anything less than that is a complete and utter failure. They will eventually send in ground troops, because airstrikes dont solve everything."


But doesn't this seem like a familiar strategy against Saddam? In 1991, the U.S. forces bombed Iraq until Saddam was no conventional military threat to us. Then sanctions were imposed,which only affected millions of civilians and left Saddam unharmed. Then a "no-fly zone" was implemented, coincidentally, over the rich oil areas of the South and Northern Kurdistan. Then, supposedly the UN took their oil and traded it for food. Then the U.S. government decided Saddam had to leave in 2003.

Right now the NATO naval blockade is on the Sirte Basin coast, where 80% of Libya oil is. NATO has established a no-fly zone and will conduct airstrikes against all potential military threats, Gaddafi or the opposition. Basically, this can go on for years... until it's time to get Gaddafi. The Libyan people do not have the technology to resist NATOs intermediary take-over strategy.


"...while we were God’s enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! Not only is this so, but we also boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation." (Romans 5:10-11)
07.07.2011 00:26
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Triniteras
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Post: #6
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Commissar Wrote:
Why do you suppose that Libya is undergoing turmoil now?

There are problems with employing some people who have compunctions against anything but white collar work, and will not do technical or physical work.

Russia also does not agree that Gaddafi attacked anyone.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2L6vA0OIITc

Commissar Wrote:
Based on this report, why did the U.S. decide that it could successfully overthrow a popular nationalist?

Wishful thinking

07.07.2011 01:27
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Post: #7
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Commissar Wrote:
Why do you suppose that Libya is undergoing turmoil now?


Rosa Luxemburg's mass strike phenomenon correlated with spyking hyperinflation and shortages.


https://www.patreon.com/SerbanVCEnache

This post was last modified: 07.07.2011 07:21 by Helsworth.

07.07.2011 07:21
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Triniteras
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Post: #8
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Helsworth Wrote:
Rosa Luxemburg's mass strike phenomenon correlated with spyking hyperinflation and shortages.

Mass strike? Only a minority of the population is involved. It's only a problem at all because Gaddafi has dismantled his military.

07.07.2011 07:36
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Globaltom
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Suedparadies
Post: #9
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Helsworth Wrote:

Commissar Wrote:
Why do you suppose that Libya is undergoing turmoil now?


Rosa Luxemburg's mass strike phenomenon correlated with spyking hyperinflation and shortages.

You see parallels to Europe in the 20 ties ?Kopfkratz


Triniteras Wrote:
It's only a problem at all because Gaddafi has dismantled his military.

Dismantelling ? How you think of that ?

Wasn t it more , that he run out of modern weapons.
Specially heavy weapons have been blocked ,
cause of its affinity to muslim extremists .


War schon beim Impfen
07.07.2011 10:46
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Triniteras
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Post: #10
RE: Selections from Libyan Country Study by the US Federal Research Division

Globaltom Wrote:
Dismantelling ? How you think of that ?

Because I have read about it. It's probably in the country study.

Globaltom Wrote:
Wasn t it more , that he run out of modern weapons.

You don't need modern weapons to take out rebels. His military was in disarray because he had favoured "people's councils" over the military, neither of which was prepared to respond.

Globaltom Wrote:
Specially heavy weapons have been blocked ,
cause of its affinity to muslim extremists.

Gaddafi has spent much of his time combatting Muslim extremism, some of whome (Monarchists) are probably combatting him to some degree now. If Gaddafi's regime falls it will be a return of Muslim extremism if anything.

07.07.2011 11:15
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